Quito: hito histórico y patrimonial

Distinguida con varios premios acoge al visitante por su naturaleza, patrimonio, historia, gastronomía, cultura, modernidad y amabilidad de la gente.

“Quito tiene dos grandes características que se  complementan: elementos tangibles de su historia e intangibles como mitos, tradiciones, lenguaje, etc.”, según el arqueólogo Alfredo Santamaría.

Vestigios

El centro histórico esconde vestigios de grupos étnicos que habitaron antes de la llegada de los incas y europeos.

En sus alrededores, a cinco leguas, cerca de 20 kilómetros cuadrados, hay evidencias de esas etnias.

“Los grupos que precedieron a los incas fueron organizados, crearon artefactos con la concha Spondylus y la obsidiana (lítica). Eso significa que la organización social, en ese momento histórico, era importante desde el Paleolítico hasta el período de Integración”.

Los grupos que poblaron las inmediaciones de Quito  tuvieron fuertes conexiones entre ellos, como seres humanos, y con su hábitat.  Llegaron a ser culturas teocráticas y tenían shamanes que conocían su entorno y las estrellas.

En el período de Integración hubo caciques. En lo religioso y espiritual se desarrollaron festividades y rituales ligados con las épocas de cosecha y siembra, y en relación con la muerte. Existen  vestigios de  sepulturas, lo que permite determinar la  categoría  social de los sepultados al observar la posición  y el  lugar de entierro.

Los grupos se asentaron donde había agua y existía una relación entre la ubicación,  la fertilidad de las plantas  y la crianza de los animales. Sus casas fueron construidas  al este u oeste, donde nace o donde muere el sol. Creían que el sol moría y nacía cada día. De ahí, la cantidad de festividades solares que existieron desde antes de la llegada de los incas.

“Hay vestigios de culturas de hace  2.800 años antes de Cristo. En Cotocollao, en el norte de Quito,  también existen muestras arqueológicas  de la Cultura Quitu y de grupos nucleados que tenían comunicación entre sí, y con otras regiones, con el fin de enfrentar efectos de la naturaleza como las erupciones volcánicas. Los Quitus se fusionaron con los Cayambis Caranquis, y después con otras culturas hasta llegar a ser los Panzaleos”.

Centro de Quito

En la actualidad, toda la riqueza histórica y arqueológica de la zona está dentro de lo que se considera el Distrito Metropolitano de Quito.

El distrito abarca 1.358.100 hectáreas que encierran en sus límites  a 24 parroquias suburbanas y rurales, los valles de los Chillos y Tumbaco, y el centro de la urbe.

Otro punto importante de Quito es el centro histórico, por su riqueza arqueológica, iglesias y arte colonial.

Un ejemplo es Santa Clara. En su plaza se evidencian elementos constructivos del siglo XVI, canales de agua que venía del Guagua y Rucu Pichincha para los sitios religiosos y para uso de los españoles, hasta que vino el alcantarillado.

Centro Cultural Itchimbía

En San Roque  se encontró  una  estructura elaborada con hierro fundido y que constituía la cúpula del mercado. Desde años atrás esta estructura se encuentra en el parque Itchimbía. Su importancia radica en que fue construida a la par de la Torre Eiffel, en Francia, y después fue obsequiada a Ecuador.

Todas estas características de Quito son la huella de un gran mestizaje que conforma la identidad del ecuatoriano.

“Tenemos una gran cantidad de elementos culturales que nos une  a grupos humanos que nos precedieron. Venimos de estos elementos que nos dan identidad.

Es un inmenso bagaje el que tenemos incluso desde hace  12 mil años  antes de la llegada de los Incas”.

Quito es una de las ciudades históricas y turísticas más importantes del mundo

Ubicada en Sudamérica,  a 2.850 metros sobre el nivel del mar, la ciudad  declarada por la Unesco en 1978 como el primer Patrimonio Cultural de la Humanidad, tiene 130 edificaciones monumentales y 5.000 inmuebles registrados en el inventario municipal de bienes patrimoniales.

En 2013, 2014 y 2015 Quito recibió el galardón de Destino Líder de Sudamérica en los World Travel Awards, catalogados como los Premios Oscar del Turismo. La ciudad y sus alrededores espera al visitante nacional e internacional con una variedad de atractivos turísticos.

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