Tulipe, símbolo de la identidad ecuatoriana

TULIPE

Tulipe es uno de los centros arqueológicos más importantes de Ecuador. En el lugar, ubicado a dos horas de Quito, en el noroccidente de la provincia de Pichincha, habitó el pueblo Yumbo entre los años 800 y 1660 d.C, antes de la llegada de los españoles.

Tulipe proviene de tul/tol: tolas y pe: agua que significa agua que baja de las tolas. La construcción de este templo se realizó durante el período de Integración. Al parecer, las  últimas huellas étnicas  desaparecieron a fines de siglo XIX.

En Tulipe se encuentran modernas y acogedoras hosterías que conjugan con la belleza del paisaje.  A lo largo de la calle principal está la oferta gastronómica como el cebiche de palmito,  el caldo de gallina o la fritada y unos deliciosos postres para endulzar todavía más al turista que llega de varios lugares del país y del mundo.

Esa misma ruta conduce al Museo de Sitio Tulipe, paraíso de los Yumbos, donde el visitante durante un interesante recorrido conoce la cultura aborigen de Ecuador.

Los Yumbos

YUMBO

La descripción más antigua sobre esta etnia, (Cabello Balboa, 1583) establece que los yumbos habitaban en un territorio que se extendía desde Lita y Atacames, en el norte, hasta Sigchos y Quito, en el sur, en particular lo que hoy conocemos como ceja de montaña o estribaciones andinas.

Los asentamientos o aldeas de esta cultura fueron identificados con topónimos como Nanigal, Pacto, Gualea, Mindo, Cachillacta, Bolaniguas, Cocaniguas, Nono, etc., nombres de algunos pueblos que ya desaparecieron y de otros que aún se conservan en la geografía actual.

La ceja de montaña occidental, cubierta de un bosque tropical húmedo, fue el escenario de una sociedad que tenía una forma de organización muy similar a los señoríos étnicos de la Sierra.

El arqueólogo Holger Jara, quien realizó las investigaciones en Tulipe, en diálogo con Radio Turismo Ecuador,  resalta la presencia e importancia  de  los yumbos y su vinculación con las regiones Sierra y  Costa. “El Yumbo fue un pueblo mercader y comerciante. Conocía las lenguas de las dos regiones. Este pueblo tenía amplios conocimientos sobre la astronomía que se refleja en los espejos de agua. Allí veían cómo estaban los astros, las estrellas o la luna para saber cuándo debían empezar la siembra”.

La actividad mayor, como pueblo de mercaderes, consistía en llevar a Quito, el tianguis más importante del área septentrional andina, productos exóticos –algodón, sal, coca,  ají- de intercambio interregional. La tarea lo realizaba a través de un recorrido por largos y estrechos caminos, en medio de la selva y peligrosos pasos naturales de la cordillera occidental, identificados como culuncos. La red vial de comercio estuvo en pleno funcionamiento y era considerada como la más estratégica durante los tiempos de las conquistas, primero por parte de los incas y luego de los españoles.

En el lugar están registradas más de 1.000 tolas, cementerios y petroglifos. El vestigio más importante es el monumento de sitio, con estructuras hundidas a manera de piscinas. Son semicirculares, rectangulares, cuadradas, poligonales y eso habla del conocimiento de la geometría y de la función astronómica que le dieron a esas estructuras.

LAS TOLAS

La cerámica descubierta en las tumbas presenta diseños que reflejan su pensamiento religioso con símbolos que se distribuyen en forma simétrica en el espacio, con brazos verticales y  horizontales.

Las bandas o partes externas de los objetos tienen una variada gama de motivos zoomorfos y antropomorfos como serpientes, aves, personajes que tienen que ver con lo mitológico. Los colores rojo y negro que utilizan en los vestigios representan a la vida y la muerte.

Hólger Jara llegó a Tulipe en 1978, cuando el viaje desde Quito duraba seis horas. Las personas del lugar no tenían claro su pasado ni sabían sobre la importancia de preservar los vestigios arqueológicos.

La investigación

El proceso de restauración del lugar empezó hace 30 años, cuando el Banco Central del Ecuador era el encargado de la rehabilitación de los sitios culturales… “pero hace 15 años intervino de manera intensiva el ex  Fonsal, que luego se convirtió en el Instituto de Patrimonio Metropolitano”.

Tulipe fue construido, según lineamientos religiosos simbólicos del pueblo Yumbo, sobre la línea equinoccial casi con exactitud.

VESTIGIOS DEL PUEBLO YUMBO

El Centro Ceremonial de Tulipe está conformado por ocho estructuras de piedra hundidas, vinculadas con acueductos.

Según el investigador, las estructuras se llenaban de agua y el reflejo de las estrellas permitía a los  chamanes u hombres de saber del pueblo Yumbo observarlas con mayor facilidad. En estas “piscinas”, como en los ríos aledaños, se hallan también numerosos petroglifos de complejas figuras. Los petroglifos muestran el tipo de escritura que usaban los Yumbos. Eran círculos concéntricos, espirales y diseños antropomorfos.

Desde 1982 se iniciaron los estudios de las llamadas “Piscinas” de Tulipe, después de valorar la importancia de este asentamiento prehispánico mencionado por primera ocasión en los estudios del antropólogo Frank Salomon.

El sitio arqueológico fue restaurado en todas sus estructuras. La investigación arroja nuevos sitios arqueológicos que permitirán ampliar el conocimiento de la cultura Yumbo, cuyos rasgos materiales más sobresalientes se evidencian en las estructuras semi hundidas, tolas y pirámides truncadas, culuncos o caminos antiguos, cementerios, petroglifos, y los restos de cerámica, metal y piedra. La provincia de los Yumbos fue llamada así en las primeras actas del Cabildo de Quito.

El Museo de Sitio

Para llegar al Museo de Sitio Tulipe se atraviesa la vía Calacalí-La Independencia hasta la parroquia rural de Nanegalito donde se toma una vía que conduce hasta la población de Tulipe. El recorrido se conjuga con un encantador paisaje y un agradable clima entre andino y tropical.

El Centro de Interpretación del Pueblo Yumbo fue inaugurado en 2007, y ofrece un montaje multimediático que incluye una réplica de uno de los petroglifos, una maqueta que refleja los amplios dominios de los yumbos y elementos audiovisuales.

Durante la visita, guías nativos le invitan a caminar junto a las piscinas y recorrer una estructura circular aledaña que tuvo funciones ceremoniales. La flora de la zona y la energía del lugar son una grata compañía.

Museo de Sitio Tulipe

La recuperación del lugar y su entorno ha sido reconocida con el premio Reina Sofía. El Ministerio de Asuntos  Exteriores y de Cooperación de España considera que estas actividades contribuyen al desarrollo integrado de las sociedades, favorecen el arraigo, la autoestima personal y colectiva y, a su vez, colabora de manera eficaz en la dinamización cultural y económica de las poblaciones implicadas.

En 2009, Tulipe  ganó el premio Gubbio que confiere la Asociación Nacional de Centros Históricos de Italia para reconocer  la protección del patrimonio cultural del Centro arqueológico.

Holger Jara considera que los premios deben ser aprovechados para continuar con la investigación y lograr una mayor repercusión social. Por ejemplo, la instalación de un centro de salud donde trabajen un médico occidental y un curandero como una forma de recuperar la memoria del pueblo Yumbo.

Horarios de atención:

De miércoles a domingo 09h00 a 17h00

Información: 593 2 2850 635/ 593 9 9234 351

Correo electrónico: museodesitio@hotmail.com

 

info@radioturismoecuador.com

radioturismoecuador@gmail.com

 

 

 

 

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188 thoughts on “Tulipe, símbolo de la identidad ecuatoriana

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